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Chapter 18. General Zoning Ordinance

Sec. 18-103. Off-Street Parking and Traffic Circulation

(1) Purpose. The purpose of this Section is to alleviate or prevent congestion of public rights-of-way so as to promote the safety and general welfare of the public by establishing minimum requirements for the provision of off-street parking and circulation.

(2) Applicability. The requirements of this Section shall apply to all new development. Any parking requirements may be modified, reduced, or waived by the Plan Commission with the issuance of a conditional use permit.

(3) Review and Approval. Through the site plan review process (see Section 18-164), the Zoning Administrator shall review and approve all development for conformance with this Section.

(4) Depiction on Required Site Plan. Any and all parking and traffic circulation areas proposed to be located on the subject property shall be depicted as to their location and configuration on the site plan required for the development of the subject property. A garage stall, meeting the access requirements of Subsection (6)(d), below, shall be considered a parking space.

(5) Minimum Required Off-Street Parking Spaces. Off-street parking requirements for each land use (see Article III) are generally tied to the use's capacity and gross floor area or the number of employees at the subject property during the largest work shift. The term "capacity" means the maximum number of persons that may be accommodated by the use as determined by its design or by state building code regulations, whichever number is greater. The term "employee(s) on the largest work shift" means the maximum number of employees working at the facility during a single given day, regardless of the time period during which this occurs, and regardless of whether any such person is a full-time employee. The largest work shift may occur on any particular day of the week or during a lunch or dinner period in the case of a restaurant. In all cases, one reserved parking space shall be provided for each vehicle used by the operation during business hours. Where said parking needs of any land use exceed the minimum requirements of this Chapter, additional parking spaces sufficient to meet the average maximum weekly peak-hour parking space demand shall be provided by said land use.

(6) Parking Requirements for New Development or Change of Land Use for Associated Existing Parking Areas. If existing parking spaces are unpaved or unimproved and new development or a change in land use causes an increase in the required parking, the additional required and access parking spaces must be hard surfaced within one year of occupancy.

(7) Off-Street Parking and Traffic Circulation Standards.

(a) Circulation. The site shall be designed to provide for the safe and efficient movement of all traffic entering, exiting, and circulating on the site. Circulation patterns shall conform to the general rules of the road. All traffic control measures shall meet the requirements of the Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices or other requirements as determined by the City Engineer.

(b) Surfacing and Marking. All new and expanded off-street parking and traffic circulation areas (including all residential driveways) shall be paved with a hard, all-weather or other surface to the satisfaction of the City Engineer. Said surfaces intended for 10 or more parking stalls shall be marked in a manner which clearly indicates required parking spaces.

1. The following are exempt from the surfacing requirements in (b) above.

a. All driveways in the RH-35 district.

b. Driveways where the only access is through a non-paved alley.

c. Parking areas subject to code enforcement or legal proceedings as of the effective date of this Chapter.

(c) Access. Except for single family and two family dwellings, each off-street parking space shall open directly upon an aisle or driveway that is wide enough and designed to provide a safe and efficient means of vehicular access to the parking space without directly backing or maneuvering a vehicle into a street on a public right-of-way of 60 feet in width or greater. All off-street parking and traffic circulation facilities shall be designed with an appropriate means of vehicular access to a street or alley, in a manner which least interferes with traffic movements. All new access aprons from the street to the edge of sidewalk or right-of-way shall be paved with a hard, all-weather or other surface to the satisfaction of the City Engineer.

(d) Snow Storage. Required off-street parking and traffic circulation areas shall not be used for snow storage. Snow storage shall not adversely affect any abutting property owner.

(e) Lighting. All off-street parking and traffic circulation areas serving 10 or more cars shall be lit so as to ensure the safe and efficient use of said areas during the hours of use. The illumination level shall not exceed the standards of Section 18-104. In addition, light bulbs on the subject property shall not be visible from residentially zoned property.

(f) Signage. All signage located within, or related to, required off-street parking or traffic circulation shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 24 of the City of Marshfield Code of Ordinances.

(g) Landscaping. Parking lot landscaping shall comply with the requirements of the paved area landscaping requirements in Article X.

(h) Parking Space Design Standards. Other than handicapped parking, each off-street parking space shall comply with the minimum requirements of Figure 18-103(b). The minimum required length of parking spaces shall be 18 feet. All parking spaces shall have a minimum vertical clearance of at least 9 feet. The Zoning Administrator may grant exceptions to these standards.

(i) Handicapped Parking Spaces. Handicapped parking shall be provided at a size, number, location, and with signage as specified by state and federal regulations.

(j) Parking Lot Design Standards. Horizontal widths for parking rows, aisles, and modules shall be provided at widths no less than listed in Figure 18-103(b). Additional design standards apply to group developments and/or large developments (See Section 18-114).

(k) Partial or Phased Development of Required Parking Spaces. Any development may seek permission to not install a portion of its required parking at time of site plan review; however, the site plan shall depict the minimum number of required parking spaces.

(l) Limit on the Maximum Number of Required Parking Spaces. No site plan may be approved for a multi-family or nonresidential use which contains more than 125 percent of the development's minimum number of required parking spaces, except as granted through a conditional use permit.

(8) Joint and Cooperative Parking Facilities.

(a) Parking facilities which have been approved by the City Engineer to provide required parking for one or more uses shall provide a total number of parking spaces which shall not be less than the sum total of the separate parking needs for each use during any peak hour parking period when said joint parking facility is utilized at the same time by said uses. However, this aggregate requirement may be reduced or expanded if part of a cooperative parking facility, the Zoning Administrator approves a reduction under Section 18-103(15), or the total number of required parking is reduced by the Plan Commission through a conditional use permit.

(b) The applicant(s) for approval of a joint parking facility shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of the City Engineer that there is no substantial conflict in the demand for parking during the principal operating hours of the two of more uses for which the joint parking facility is proposed to serve.

(c) Cooperative parking facility. Up to 15 percent reduction in the number of required parking spaces for 4 or more separate uses; 10 percent for 3 separate uses; and 5 percent for 2 separate uses may be authorized by the administrator following approval of a plan which provides for a collective parking facility of no less than 15,000 square feet, serving 2 or more buildings or uses, developed through voluntary cooperation or under any parking district which may hereafter be provided by law.

(d) Joint but alternate use. The administrator may authorize the joint use of parking facilities under the following conditions:

1. Up to 50 percent of the parking facilities by nighttime uses may be supplied by the off-street parking facilities of daytime uses.

2. Up to 50 percent of the parking facilities of daytime uses may be supplied by the off-street parking facilities of nighttime uses.

3. Up to 100 percent of the parking facilities of a church or auditorium incidental to a grade school may be supplied by the off-street parking facilities of daytime uses.

4. For the purposes of this section, daytime uses are defined as offices, banks, retail stores, personal service or repair shops, household equipment or furniture stores, manufacturing or wholesale, or similar primarily daytime uses; and nighttime uses are defined as auditoriums incidental to grade schools, churches, bowling alleys, dancehalls, theaters, bars or restaurants, motels, or similar primarily nighttime or Sunday uses and R-8 and R-9 nonelderly, multifamily housing.

5. Conditions required for joint use shall be as follows:

a. The building or use for which application is being made to utilize the off-street parking facilities provided by another building or use shall be located within 500 feet of such parking facilities or a longer distance as permitted by the plan commission through a conditional use permit.

b. The applicant shall show that there is no substantial conflict in the principal operating hours of the two buildings or uses for which joint use of off-street parking facilities is proposed.

c. A properly drawn legal instrument, executed by the parties concerned for joint use of off-street parking facilities, duly approved as to form and manner of execution by the city attorney, shall be filed with the administrator. Joint use parking privileges shall continue in effect only so long as such an instrument, binding on all parties, remains in force. If such instrument becomes legally ineffective, then parking shall be provided as otherwise required in this chapter.

(9) Locational Prohibitions for Off-Street Parking Areas.

(a) Off-street parking on a residential lot shall not be located between the principal structure and a street right of way, except within residential driveways, parking pads, and parking lots designated on the approved site plan.

(b) Except in the DMU and UMU districts, there shall be a minimum 10 foot setback for any driveway width additions or parking pads in the front and street side yards. See Figure 18-103(a). Driveways adjacent to alleys are exempt from this requirement.

Figure 18-103(a): Minimum Driveway Expansion and Parking Pad Setback

18.103a
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(10) Minimum Permitted Throat Length. All new nonresidential and new multiple family residential development shall have a minimum of a 25 foot throat length for access drives serving parking lots as measured from the right-of-way line. This requirement shall not apply to the DMU and UMU districts. The Plan Commission may reduce the 25 foot throat length requirement as granted through a conditional use permit. The City Engineer may require additional throat length if deemed necessary.

(11) Potential Reduction in Parking. The Plan Commission may decrease the required number of off-street automobile parking spaces based upon technical documentation furnished by the applicant that indicates, to the satisfaction of the Plan Commission, that actual off-street parking demand for that particular use is less than the required standard set forth in this Chapter.

(12) Installation and Maintenance. All off-street parking and traffic circulation areas shall be completed within one year of use of the parking and circulation areas and shall be constructed of a hard surface or other material approved by the City Engineer. In no instance shall any required off-street parking or traffic circulation area be used as a storage area, except as provided for by Section 18-105. The City Engineer may require the property owner to replace portions of parking areas in disrepair.

(13) Setbacks. The distance from an off street parking area to the property line of an abutting property shall not be less than 3 feet, as measured along the property line, except for existing driveways, driveways on lots of 50 feet in width or less, and shared driveways. Existing parking areas may be maintained, repaired, or replaced at their setback as of the effective date of this chapter. Parking areas and the edge of driveway additions (see armpit definition) shall have a 10 foot setback from the front and street yard property line.

(14) Parking requirement exceptions. Exceptions to parking requirements shall be as follows:

(a) DMU Downtown Mixed Use exception. The Plan Commission may grant exceptions, through the issuance of a conditional use permit, to the off-street parking requirements in the DMU district, where, because of small lot sizes or historic development patterns, it is either impractical or infeasible to meet the provisions of this section.

(b) Elderly housing developments. The Plan Commission may grant exceptions, through the issuance of a conditional use permit, to the off-street parking requirements for certain elderly housing developments where the developer can successfully demonstrate that automobile ownership will be sufficiently low so that the required number of stalls would be unnecessary. In no instance may the number of stalls be reduced to less than 0.5 per dwelling unit.

(c) Off-site parking. The Plan Commission may grant exceptions, through the issuance of a conditional use permit, whenever required parking and loading spaces cannot be located on a parcel because of development restrictions imposed by the presence of an existing principal structure which is to continue in use or to other conditions requiring off-parcel parking and to the distance requirements in Subsections (7)(c)1 and (7)(c)2 of this section. Required parking may then be provided off the parcel, for permitted uses only, subject to the following requirements:

1. If the use is residential, hotel, motel, or tourist home, the off-site spaces shall be within 200 feet of the principal entrance or the entrance for individual occupants for whom spaces are reserved.

2. If the use is other than residential, hotel, motel or tourist home, the farthest portion of the parking lot shall be within 1,000 feet of an entrance to the establishment.

3. Distances indicated in Subsections (15)(c)1 and (15)(c)2 of this section shall be measured along routes generally available to the pedestrians involved.

4. Off-site parking areas shall be held in fee simple by the same owner as the use requiring the off-street parking space, or under lease, rental, or other form of agreement satisfactory to the plan commission with respect to ensuring continuing availability for required off-site parking for the use.

(d) Hard-surfacing. The Plan Commission may grant exceptions, through the issuance of a conditional use permit, to temporarily or permanently wave the hard-surfacing requirements of this Section.

(e) Setbacks. The Plan Commission may grant exceptions, through the issuance of a conditional use permit, reduce or wave the setback requirements of this Section (18-103).

(f) Other exceptions to the parking requirements may be granted by the Plan Commission through the issuance of a conditional use permit. Exceptions may only be granted where unique circumstances exist and extraordinary hardships or particular difficulties may result from strict compliance with this section and further provided that such exception shall not impair the general purposes of this section and the overall chapter.

 (6) The Zoning Administrator may allow a reduction in the number of parking spaces constructed provided that the applicant can demonstrate on a site plan that the property has enough room to accommodate the required parking spaces.


Figure 18-103(b): Parking Layout Dimensions

Figure 18-103(b): Parking Layout Dimensions
 Parking Angle in Degrees
Minimum Permitted Dimensions45°60°75°90°
Stall Width at Parking Angle (SW)9.0'9.0'>9.0'9.0'9.0'
Stall Width Parallel to Aisle (WP)17'12.7'10.4'9.3'9.0'
Stall Depth to Wall (D)9.0'117.5'119.0'119.5'118.5'1
Stall Depth to Interlock (DI)N/A15.3'17.5'18.8'N/A
Stall Length (SL)18.0'18.0'18.0'18.0'18.0'
Aisle Width (AW)12.0'212.0'216.0'217.20'224.0'
Parking Module Width (PMW)     
Wall to Wall (Single-Loaded) (W1)21.0'29.5'35.0'42.5'44.5'
Wall to Wall (Double-Loaded) (W2)30.0'47.0'54.0'62.0'63.0'
Wall to Interlock (Double-Loaded) (W3)N/A44.8'52.5'61.3'N/A
Interlock to Interlock (Double-Loaded) (W4)N/A42.6'51.0'60.6'N/A
Notes:
1Parking spaces located behind an enclosed garage and located on a through aisle shall be at least 30 feet deep.
2This dimension represents (AW) for one-way traffic.

18.103b
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