Chapter 25. Construction Site Erosion Control
Sec. 25-27. Performance Standards
(1) RESPONSIBLE PARTY. The responsible party shall implement a post-construction storm water management plan that incorporates the requirements of this section.
(2) PLAN. A written storm water management plan in accordance with 25-29 shall be developed and implemented for each post-construction site.
(3) REQUIREMENTS. The plan required under subsection (2) above, shall include the following:
(a) TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS. BMPs shall be designed, installed and maintained to control total suspended solids carried in runoff from the post-construction site as follows:
1. For new development, by design, reduce to the maximum extent practicable, the total suspended solids load by 80%, based on the average annual rainfall, as compared to no runoff management controls. No person shall be required to exceed an 80% total suspended solids reduction to meet the requirements of this subsection.
2. For redevelopment, by design, reduce to the maximum extent practicable, the total suspended solids load by 40%, based on the average annual rainfall, as compared to no runoff management controls. No person shall be required to exceed a 40% total suspended solids reduction to meet the requirements of this subsection.
3. For in-fill development, by design, reduce to the maximum extent practicable, the total suspended solids load by 80%, based on an average annual rainfall, as compared to no runoff management controls. No person shall be required to exceed an 80% total suspended solids reduction to meet the requirements of this subsection.
4. Notwithstanding subsections 1 to 3 above, if the design cannot achieve the applicable total suspended solids reduction specified, the storm water management plan shall include a written and site-specific explanation why that level of reduction is not attained and the total suspended solids load shall be reduced to the maximum extent practicable.
(b) PEAK DISCHARGE.
1. By design, BMPs shall be employed to maintain or reduce the peak runoff discharge rates, to the maximum extent practicable, as compared to pre-development conditions for the 2-year, 24-hour; the 10-year, 24 hour; the 25 year, 24 hour; and the 100 year, 24 hour design storms applicable to the post-construction site. Pre-development conditions shall assume "good hydrologic conditions" for appropriate land covers as identified in TR-55 or an equivalent methodology. The meaning of "hydrologic soil group" and "runoff curve number" are as determined in TR-55. However, when pre-development land cover is cropland, rather than using TR-55 values for cropland, the runoff curve numbers in Table 1 shall be used.
Table 1 - Maximum Pre-Development Runoff Curve Numbers for Cropland Areas
Hydrologic Soil Group
Runoff Curve Number
(c) INFILTRATION. BMPs shall be designed, installed, and maintained to infiltrate runoff to the maximum extent practicable in accordance with the following, except as provided in subsections 5 through 8 below.
1. For residential developments one of the following shall be met:
a. Infiltrate sufficient runoff volume so that the post-development infiltration volume shall be at least 90% of the pre-development infiltration volume, based on an average annual rainfall. However, when designing appropriate infiltration systems to meet this requirement, no more than 1% of the project site is required as an effective infiltration area.
b. Infiltrate 25% of the post-development runoff from the 2 year -24 hour design storm with a type II distribution. Separate curve numbers for pervious and impervious surfaces shall be used to calculate runoff volumes and not composite curve numbers as defined in TR-55. However, when designing appropriate infiltration systems to meet this requirement, no more than 1% of the project site is required as an effective infiltration area.
2. For non-residential development, including commercial, industrial and institutional development, one of the following shall be met:
a. Infiltrate sufficient runoff volume so that the post-development infiltration volume shall be at least 60% of the pre-development infiltration volume, based on an average annual rainfall. However, when designing appropriate infiltration systems to meet this requirement, no more than 2% of the project site is required as an effective infiltration area.
b. Infiltrate 10% of the runoff from the 2 year - 24 hour design storm with a type II distribution. Separate curve numbers for pervious and impervious surfaces shall be used to calculate runoff volumes, and not composite curve numbers as defined in TR-55. However, when designing appropriate infiltration systems to meet this requirement, no more than 2% of the project site is required as an effective infiltration area.
3. Pre-development condition shall be the same as in subsection (b) above.
4. A model that calculates runoff volume, such as SLAMM, or an equivalent methodology approved by the Director of Public Works or his designee shall be used.
5. Before infiltrating runoff, pretreatment shall be required for parking lot runoff and for runoff from new road construction in commercial, industrial and institutional areas that will enter an infiltration system. The pretreatment shall be designed to protect the infiltration system from clogging prior to scheduled maintenance and to protect groundwater quality in accordance with subsection 9 below. Pretreatment options may include, but are not limited to, oil/grease separation, sedimentation, biofiltration, filtration, swales or filter strips.
6. Exclusions. The runoff from the following areas is prohibited from meeting the requirements of subsection (c) above:
a. Areas associated with tier 1 industrial facilities identified in s. NR 216.21(2)(a), Wis. Adm. Code, including storage, loading, rooftop and parking.
b. Storage and loading areas of tier 2 industrial facilities identified in s. NR 216.21(2)(b), Wis. Adm. Code.
c. Fueling and vehicle maintenance areas.
d. Areas within 1000 feet up gradient or within 100 feet down gradient of karst features.
e. Areas with less than 3 feet separation distance from the bottom of the infiltration system to the elevation of seasonal high groundwater or the top of bedrock, except this subsection 6.e. does not prohibit infiltration of roof runoff.
f. Areas with runoff from industrial, commercial and institutional parking lots and roads and residential arterial roads with less than 5 feet separation distance from the bottom of the infiltration system to the elevation of seasonal high groundwater or the top of bedrock.
g. Areas within 400 feet of a community water system well as specified in s. NR 811.16(4), Wis. Adm. Code, or within 100 feet of a private well as specified in s. NR 812.08(4), Wis. Adm. Code, for runoff infiltrated from commercial, industrial and institutional land uses or regional devices for residential development.
h. Areas where contaminants of concern, as defined in s. NR 720.03(2), Wis. Adm. Code are present in the soil through which infiltration will occur.
i. Any area where the soil does not exhibit one of the following soil characteristics between the bottom of the infiltration system and the seasonal high groundwater and top of bedrock: at least a 3-foot soil layer with 20% fines or greater; or at least a 5-foot soil layer with 10% fines or greater. This does not apply where the soil medium within the infiltration system provides an equivalent level of protection. This subsection, 5i, does not prohibit infiltration of roof runoff.
7. Exemptions. The following are not required to meet the requirements of this subsection (c) above:
a. Areas where the infiltration rate of the soil is less than 0.6 inches/hour.
b. Parking areas and access roads less than 5,000 square feet for commercial and industrial development.
c. Redevelopment post-construction sites.
d. In-fill development areas less than 5 acres.
e. Infiltration areas during periods when the soil on the site is frozen.
f. Roads in commercial, industrial and institutional land uses, and arterial residential roads.
8. Where alternate uses of runoff are employed, such as for toilet flushing, laundry or irrigation, such alternate use shall be given equal credit toward the infiltration volume required by this section.
9. Infiltration systems designed in accordance with subsection (c) above shall, to the extent technically and economically feasible, minimize the level of pollutants infiltrating to groundwater and shall maintain compliance with the preventive action limit at a point of standards application in accordance with ch. NR 140, Wis. Adm. Code. However, if site specific information indicates that compliance with a preventive action limit is not achievable, the infiltration BMP may not be installed or shall be modified to prevent infiltration to the maximum extent practicable. The discharge from BMPs shall remain below the enforcement standard at the point of standards application.
(d) PROTECTIVE AREAS.
1. Protective area means an area of land that commences at the top of the channel of lakes, streams and rivers, or at the delineated boundary of wetlands, and that is the greatest of the following widths, as measured horizontally from the top of the channel or delineated wetland boundary to the closest impervious surface. However, in this paragraph, "protective area" does not include any area of land adjacent to any stream enclosed within a pipe or culvert, such that runoff cannot enter the enclosure at this location.
a. For outstanding resource waters and exceptional resource waters, and for wetlands in areas of special natural resource interest as specified in s. NR 103.04, 75 feet.
b. For perennial and intermittent streams identified on a United States geological survey 7.5-minute series topographic map, or a county soil survey map, whichever is more current, 50 feet.
c. For lakes, 50 feet.
d. For highly susceptible wetlands, 50 feet. Highly susceptible wetlands include the following types: fens, sedge meadows, bogs, low prairies, conifer swamps, shrub swamps, other forested wetlands, fresh wet meadows, shallow marshes, deep marshes and seasonally flooded basins. Wetland boundary delineations shall be made in accordance with s. NR 103.08(1m). This paragraph does not apply to wetlands that have been completely filled in accordance with all applicable state and federal regulations. The protective area for wetlands that have been partially filled in accordance with all applicable state and federal regulations shall be measured from the wetland boundary delineation after fill has been placed.
e. For less susceptible wetlands, 10 percent of the average wetland width, but no less than 10 feet nor more than 30 feet. Less susceptible wetlands include degraded wetlands dominated by invasive species such as reed canary grass.
f. In subsections a, d and e above, determinations of the extent of the protective area adjacent to wetlands shall be made on the basis of the sensitivity and runoff susceptibility of the wetland in accordance with the standards and criteria in s. NR 103.03.
g. For concentrated flow channels with drainage areas greater than 130 acres, 10 feet.
2. This paragraph applies to post-construction sites located within a protective area, except those areas exempted pursuant to subsection 4. below.
3. The following requirements shall be met for protective areas:
a. Impervious surfaces shall be kept out of the protective area to the maximum extent practicable. The storm water management plan shall contain a written site-specific explanation for any parts of the protective area that are disturbed during construction.
b. Where land disturbing construction activity occurs within a protective area, and where no impervious surface is present, adequate sod or self-sustaining vegetative cover of 70% or greater shall be established and maintained. The adequate sod or self-sustaining vegetative cover shall be sufficient to provide for bank stability, maintenance of fish habitat and filtering of pollutants from upslope overland flow areas under sheet flow conditions. Non-vegetative materials, such as rock riprap, may be employed on the bank as necessary to prevent erosion, such as on steep slopes or where high velocity flows occur.
c. Best management practices such as filter strips, swales, or wet detention basins, that are designed to control pollutants from non-point sources may be located in the protective area.
4. This paragraph does not apply to:
a. Structures that cross or access surface waters such as boat landings, bridges and culverts.
b. Structures constructed in accordance with s. 59.692(1v), Wis. Stats.
c. Post-construction sites from which runoff does not enter the surface water, except to the extent that vegetative ground cover is necessary to maintain bank stability.
(e) FUELING AND VEHICLE MAINTENANCE AREAS. Fueling and vehicle maintenance areas shall, to the maximum extent practicable, have BMPs designed, installed and maintained to reduce petroleum within runoff, such that the runoff that enters waters of the state contains no visible petroleum sheen.
(f) SWALE TREATMENT FOR TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES.
1. Applicability. Except as provided in subsection 2 below, transportation facilities that use swales for runoff conveyance and pollutant removal meet all of the requirements of this section, if the swales are designed to the maximum extent practicable to do all of the following:
a. Be vegetated. It is preferred that tall and dense vegetation be maintained within the swale due to its greater effectiveness at enhancing runoff pollutant removal. However, where appropriate, non-vegetative measures may be employed to prevent erosion or provide for runoff treatment, such as rock riprap stabilization or check dams.
b. Carry runoff through a swale for 200 feet or more in length that is designed with a flow velocity no greater than 1.5 feet per second for the peak flow generated using either a 2-year, 24-hour design storm or a 2-year storm with a duration equal to the time of concentration as appropriate. If a swale of 200 feet in length cannot be designed with a flow velocity of 1.5 feet per second or less, then the flow velocity shall be reduced to the maximum extent practicable. Check dams may be included in the swale design to slow runoff flows and improve pollutant removal.
2. Exemptions. The Director of Public Works or his designee may, consistent with water quality standards, require other provisions of this section be met on a transportation facility with an average daily travel of vehicles greater than 2500 and where the initial surface water of the state that the runoff directly enters is any of the following:
a. An outstanding resource water.
b. An exceptional resource water.
c. Waters listed in s. 303(d) of the federal clean water act that are identified as impaired in whole or in part, due to nonpoint source impacts.
d. Waters where targeted performance standards are developed under s. NR 151.004, Wis. Adm. Code, to meet water quality standards.
(4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ON-SITE AND OFF-SITE STORM WATER MANAGEMENT MEASURES. The following considerations shall be observed in managing runoff:
(a) Natural topography and land cover features such as natural swales, natural depressions, native soil infiltrating capacity, and natural groundwater recharge areas shall be preserved and used, to the extent possible, to meet the requirements of this section.
(b) Emergency overland flow for all storm water facilities shall be provided to prevent exceeding the safe capacity of downstream drainage facilities and prevent endangerment of downstream property or public safety.
(c) Except as provided herein, all rainwater downspouts shall be placed so that drainage is to pervious surfaces. The owner is responsible for arranging drainage in a manner that complies with the law. Rainwater from downspouts shall be drained so as not to cause flooding of or dampness to walls, ceilings, or floors in any portion of on-site buildings or in any adjacent building, structure, or property. Direct connection of downspouts to municipal storm sewer or drain tile systems will not be permitted.
(5) LOCATION AND REGIONAL TREATMENT OPTION.
(a) The BMPs may be located on-site or off-site as part of a regional storm water device, practice or system.
(b) Post-construction runoff within a non-navigable surface water that flows into a BMP, such as a wet detention pond, is not required to meet the performance standards of this ordinance. Post-construction BMPs may be located in non-navigable surface waters.
(c) Except as allowed under subsection (d) below, post-construction runoff from new development shall meet the post-construction performance standards prior to entering a navigable surface water.
(d) Post-construction runoff from any development within a navigable surface water that flows into a BMP is not required to meet the performance standards of this ordinance if:
1. The BMP was constructed prior to the effective date of this ordinance and the BMP either received a permit issued under ch. 30, Wis. Stats., or the BMP did not require a ch. 30, Wis. Stats., permit; and
2. The BMP is designed to provide runoff treatment from future upland development.
(e) Runoff from existing development, redevelopment and in-fill areas shall meet the post-construction performance standards in accordance with this paragraph.
1. To the maximum extent practicable, BMPs shall be located to treat runoff prior to discharge to navigable surface waters.
2. Post-construction BMPs for such runoff may be located in a navigable surface water if allowable under all other applicable federal, state and local regulations such as ch. NR 103, Wis. Adm. Code and ch. 30, Wis. Stats.
(f) The discharge of runoff from a BMP, such as a wet detention pond, or after a series of such BMPs is subject to this chapter.
(g) The Director of Public Works or his designee may approve off-site management measures provided that all of the following conditions are met:
1. The Director of Public Works or his designee determines that the post-construction runoff is covered by a storm water management system plan that is approved by the City of Marshfield and that contains management requirements consistent with the purpose and intent of this ordinance.
2. The off-site facility meets all of the following conditions:
a. The facility is in place.
b. The facility is designed and adequately sized to provide a level of storm water control equal to or greater than that which would be afforded by on-site practices meeting the performance standards of this ordinance.
c. The facility has a legally obligated entity responsible for its long-term operation and maintenance.
(h) Where a regional treatment option exists such that the Director of Public Works or his designee exempts the applicant from all or part of the minimum on-site storm water management requirements, the applicant shall be required to pay a fee in an amount determined in negotiation with the Director of Public Works or his designee. In determining the fee for post-construction runoff, the Director of Public Works or his designee shall consider an equitable distribution of the cost for land, engineering design, construction, and maintenance of the regional treatment option.
(6) ALTERNATE REQUIREMENTS. The Director of Public Works or his designee may establish storm water management requirements more stringent than those set forth in this section if the Director of Public Works or his designee determines that an added level of protection is needed to protect sensitive resources.
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